Surgeon Console: This is where the surgeon sits while operating. It is located in the same operating room which means that the surgeon is physically present all throughout the surgery. Instead of directly moving the instruments, the surgeon uses the console to move the instruments which are attached to the robotic arms. The computer translates the surgeon's movements, which are then carried out precisely by the robot. Through out the surgery, the surgeon is able to get a high resolution view of the inside of the patient's body.
Patient Side Cart: This is where the patient is made to lie down for the surgery. It includes 4 robotic arms that carry out the surgeon's commands. The robotic arms move depending on the movement specified by the surgeon at the console, which means that the operation is under direct control of the surgeon. The robotic arms are fitted with surgical instruments which enter into the body through keyhole incisions of 1 to 2 cms. The robotic system translates the surgeons hand movements into micro-movements of the instruments to perform the surgery. Repeated safety checks prevent any independent movements of the instrument or the robotic arm.
Endo Wrist Instruments: These instruments are attached to the robotic arm and are designed to give a range of movements even greater than the human wrist. An integrated tremor filter detects and filters out any tremors in the surgeon's hand movements, so that they are not duplicated robotically. This further enables the surgeon to perform various surgical operations with a greater level of precision.
Vision System: The vision system is equipped with a high-definition, 3D endoscope (flexible tube with a camera and light at the tip) that provides live images of the area to be operated. The surgeon gets a magnified view of the robotic movements which is 20 to 40 times more magnified than naked eye, thus helping the surgeon to do more accurate operations.
The cost of surgery will be marginally more than a laparoscopic surgery, but this cost is offset by the reduced cost of a shorter hospital stay, and an early return to work. There is also the 'savings' of minimal or no blood transfusion, the advantage of less pain with superior results as well as better cosmetic results.
A patient is NEVER 'in the hands of' a robot. This is a common misconception. The patient is ALWAYS and ONLY 'in the hands of' the surgeon. The surgery is robot-assisted. The robot is NOT a surgeon; it is an advanced, high-tech machine that carries out the surgeon's instructions. The robot doesn't and cannot do anything by its own. It is the surgeon who does the entire surgery; the robotic arms mimicking the movements of the surgeon's hands and fingers. The onus and control of the entire surgery still lies on the surgical team. It is still the judgment, expertise and experience of the surgeon which makes the surgery successful. So you are as safe 'in the hands of' the robot as you would be in the hands of the surgeon, because you are always in the hands of the surgeon.
It depends on the specialty/category of the surgery. But as a rule, robotic surgery takes as much time as conventional surgery.
This would be an extremely rare occurrence. The machine is built to very strict quality standards, and is constantly maintained to a very demanding set of mandated inspections. It is also inspected before every surgery to very strict and mandated criteria of checks.
Nevertheless, the surgeon and the operation theatre team is always prepared to (and able to) convert the surgery to a laparoscopic surgery or an open surgery.
As many as there are during conventional surgery: all senior doctors, the entire surgical team, and all the attendant technicians.
Absolutely not. It is ALWAYS the anaesthesiologist who administers anaesthesia.
Patients cannot opt for robotic surgery by themselves. If a patient requests robotic surgery, a specialist in the particular field will need to review the patient and his reports to ensure that the patient is suitable for robotic surgery. The patient is encouraged to consult his own doctor too. Robotic surgery is an option that a patient can elect ONLY IF all the concerned doctors agree that it is a better option. Robotic surgery is offered to a patient as an alternative to conventional surgery only when a patient has met all necessary criteria.
None whatsoever. There are no special precautions to be taken for a robot-assisted surgery. The precautions and pre-op procedures remain the same as they are for a routine surgery. The pre-op tests done prior to the procedure are similar to the tests done prior to a routine surgery.